Karate Day

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Today is a day that is important to every single person who practices karate, but yet many don’t seem to know about the importance of today.
 
On October 25, 1936 a group of martial art masters met on Okinawa to figure out what the Okinawan martial art was going to be called.  Up until this point the word karate had not really been widely used, and other things such as Toudi, Kempo, Toudi-do, and Te were used to describe karate.
 
The martial artists that were present for this decision included: Hanashiro Chomo, Kyan Chotoku, Motobu Choki, Miyagi Chojun, Kyoda Juhatsu, Chibana Choshin, Gusukuma Shinpan, Oroku Chotei, and Nakasone Genwa.
 
Due to the efforts of these gentlemen the name karate (empty hand) was decided on and the rest is history.
 
Gambatte Kudasai,
Scot
 
TRANSLATION OF MEETING NOTES
Time and Date: 4 PM, October 25, 1936
Showa Kaikan, Naha Okinawa
 
In attendance:  Hanashiro Chomo, Kyan Chotoku, Motobu Choki, Miyagi Chojun, Kyoda Juhatsu, Chibana Choshin, Gusukuma Shinpan, Oroku Chotei, Nakasone Genwa
 
Guests:  Sato Koichi, Shimabukuro Zenpatsu, Fukushima Kitsuma, Kita Eizo, Goeku Chosho, Furukawa Gizaburo, Ando Sei, Ota Choshiki, Matayoshi Kowa, Yamaguchi Zensoku, Mr. Tamashiro
 
Meeting Notes:
Genwa Nakasone: When karate was first introduced in Tokyo, the capital of Japan, "karate" was written in Kanji (唐手/China hand) as "唐手". This name sounded exotic, and gradually accepted among people in Tokyo. However, some people thought this Kanji "唐手" was not appropriate at schools. In order to avoid the use of this Kanji, some karate dojo wrote "karate" in Hiragana (からて) instead of Kanji (the kanji for Toudi 唐手). This is an example of temporary use of the word. In Tokyo, most karate dojo use the Kanji "空手道" for karate-do, although there are still a few dojo using the Kanji "唐手." In order to develop Japanese martial arts, I think Kanji for "karate" should be "空手" instead of "唐手" and "空手道" should be the standard name. What do you think?
 
Chomo Hanashiro: In the old days, we, Okinawan people, used to call it (唐手) "Toudi" or "Tode", not "Karate." We also called it just (手) "Tii" or "Te." It means fighting with hands and fists.
 
Ota: We, too, called it "Toudi" or "Tode."
 
Shimabukuro: Mr. Nakasone, I hear nowadays people call "Karate-Do" for karate. Does this mean people added the word "Do" to the name "Karate" for emphasizing the importance of spiritual training like Judo and Kendo?
 
Nakasone: They use the word "Karate-Do" in the meaning of cultivation of the mind.
 
Ota: Mr. Miyagi, do you use the word "唐手" for karate?
 
Chojun Miyagi: Yes, I use the Kanji "唐手" as most people do so. It has minor meaning. Those who want to learn karate from me come to my home and say "Please teach me Tii or Te." So I think people used to call "Tii" or "Te" for karate. I think "空手" is good in the meaning of the word. As Mr. Shimabukuro said, the name "Jujutsu" was changed to "Judo." In China, in the old days, people called Hakuda or Baida for Chinese kungfu, Kenpo or Quanfa. Like those examples, names changes according to times. I think the name "Karate-Do" is better than just "Karate." However, I will reserve decision on this matter, as I think we should hear other people's opinions. We had a controversy on this matter at the meeting of Okinawa Branch of Dai Nippon Butokukai. We shelved this controversial problem. In the mean time, we, members of Okinawa Branch, use the name "唐手道" written in Kanji as "The Way of Chinese Hand." Our Shinkokai will be formed soon, so we would like to have a good name.
 
Oroku: Mr. Miyagi, did you go all the way to China for studying karate?
 
Chojun Miyagi: At the beginning I had no plan to practice kungfu in China, but I found the kungfu excellent, so I learned it.
 
Oroku: Have there been our own "Te" here in our prefecture, Okinawa, for a long time?
 
Chojun Miyagi: There have been "Te" in Okinawa. It has been improved and developed like Judo, Kendo and boxing.
 
Kyoda Juhatsu: I agree to Mr. Nakasone's opinion. However, I am opposed to making a formal decision right now at this meeting. Most Okinawan people still use the word "唐手" for karate, so we should listen to karate practitioners and karate researchers in Okinawa, and also we should study it thoroughly at our study group before making a decision.
 
Chojun Miyagi: We do not make a decision immediately at this meeting.
 
Matayoshi: Please express your opinion honestly.
 
Chomo Hanashiro: In my old notebooks, I found using the kanji "唐手" for karate. Since August 1905, I have been using the kanji "空手" for karate, such as "Karate Kumite." (空手組手)
 
Goeku: I would like to make a comment, as I have a relation with Okinawa branch of Dai Nippon Butokukai. Karate was recognized as a fighting art by Okinawa branch of Dai Nippon Butokukai in 1933. At that time, Master Chojun Miyagi wrote karate as "唐手." We should change his writing "唐手" into "空手" at Okinawa branch if we change the Kanji into "空手." We would like to approve this change immediately and follow procedure, as we need to have approval of the headquarters of Dai Nippon Butokukai.
 
Ota: Mr. Chomo Hanashiro is the first person who used the kanji "空手" for karate in 1905. If something become popular in Tokyo, it will automatically become popular and common in other part of Japan. Maybe Okinawan people do not like changing the kanji (= Chinese character) of karate. But we would be marginalized if the word "唐手" is regarded as a local thing, while the word "空手" is regarded as a common name for karate as a Japanese fighting art. Therefore we had better use the word "空手" for karate.
 
Nakasone: So far the speakers are those who have been living in Okinawa for a long time. Now I would like to have a comment from Mr. Sato, the director of the School Affairs Office. He came to Okinawa recently.
 
Sato: I have almost no knowledge about karate, but I think the word "空手" is good, as the word "唐手" is groundless according to the researchers.
 
Furukawa: The kanji written as "空手" is attractive for us who came from outside Okinawa, and we regard it as an aggressive fighting art. I was disappointed when I saw the kanji "唐手" for karate.
 
Nakasone: This time, I would like to have a comment from Mr. Fukushima, the Lieutenant of the Regimental Headquarters.
 
Fukushima: The kanji "空手" for karate is appropriate. The kanji "唐手" for karate is difficult to understand for those who do not know karate.
 
Ota: There is no one who do not like the word "空手" for karate, but there are people who do not like the word "唐手" for karate.
 
Chojun Miyagi: Well, when I visited Hawaii, Chinese people there seemed to have friendly feeling toward the word "唐手" for karate.
 
Shimabukuro: Here in Okinawa, we used to call "Tii" or "Te" for karate. To differentiate from it, we called "Toudi" or "Tode" for karate that was brought from China.
 
Nakasone: I think we have almost made clear about the name of karate. Now we would like to discuss about the promotion of karate. It is regrettable that karate is not popular in Okinawa at present. We need to find a solution to promote karate in the fields of physical education and martial arts education.
 
Furukawa: There are a lot of Ryu or styles in karate now. I think we have to unify them at any cost. I hear there are small differences between Shuri style karate and Naha style karate. I think both styles should be unified and we should make Kata of Japanese Karate-do. In the old days, we had about 200 styles of Kendo, but now they have been unified and we have the standard Kata of Japanese Kendo. I think karate would become popular all over the country if we had the unified Kata. For example, we can newly establish ten Kata as Japanese Karate. The name of each Kata should be changed into Japanese, such as Junan-No-Kata (soft and stretch kata), Kogeki-No-Kata (offensive kata) and so on. In this way, we can conform the name of Kata to its content. And I also think we should make karate a competitive sport, so we should study how to hold a game of karate. We would like to make a uniform of karate and standardize contents and forms.
 
Chojun Miyagi: I agree to your opinion. With regard to Kata of karate, I ever submitted the opinion with explanation to the headquarters of Dai Nippon Butokukai, when its Okinawa branch was established. As to karate clothes, we also would like to make karate uniform soon as we often have problems. As for terminology of karate, I think we will have to control it in the future. I am also advocating it, and I have been making new technical words and promoting them. Regarding Kata, I think traditional Kata should be preserved as old or classic Kata For the nationwide promotion of karate, I think we had better create new Kata. We will create both offensive and defensive Kata which are suitable for students of primary schools, high schools, universities and youth schools. Mainly, we, the members of Shinkokai, will make new Kata and promote them throughout Japan. Now there are Physical Education Association and Okinawa Branch of Butokukai. We also have senior students of karate and those who are interested in karate. We, therefore, cooperate with them to study and promote karate. If such organizations and experts study karate thoroughly, we can make a decision about the karate name issue and karate uniform relatively soon. I think the old Kata should be preserved without any modification while new Kata should be invented, otherwise I am convinced that no one will be interested in karate any longer in the world in the future.
 
Ota: How many karate organizations are there in Okinawa at present?
 
Chojun Miyagi: There are Okinawa Branch of Dai Nippon Butokukai, Physical Education Association of Okinawa Prefecture and Physical Education Association of Shuri City.
 
Ota: Mr. Chibana, how many students do you have now at your karate dojo?
 
Choshin Chibana: I have about 40 students at my karate dojo.
 
Chojun Miyagi: There is an opinion insisting that there are two Ryu or styles in karate, namely, Shorin-Ryu and Shorei-Ryu. I think such an opinion is wrong or false, as there is no evidence at all. However, if we have two styles in karate, we can categorize them by their teaching methods. In one style, they do not even differentiate between Fundamental Kata (Kata such as Sanchin, Tensho and Naihanchi) and Kaishu Kata (Kata other than Sanchin, Tensho and Naihanchi). They teach karate unsystematically and unmethodically. In the other style, they differentiate between Fundamental Kata and Kaishu Kata clearly. They teach karate systematically and methodically. My teacher taught me karate in the way of the latter.
 
Ota: Karate masters we know did not go to China to study karate.
 
Chojun Miyagi: I have heard that Master Matsumura went to China and practiced karate there.
 
Choshin Chibana: Our teacher taught us Naifanchi as a Fundamental Kata.
 
Ota: Mr. Motobu, who taught you karate?
 
Choki Motobu: I learned karate from Master Itosu, Master Sakuma and Master Matsumora of Tomari village.
 
Ota: I thought you created your own karate on your own without learning from karate masters.
 
Choki Motobu: (laughing) No, I did not create my karate on my own.
 
Nakasone: Now we know every karate masters have agreed to the plan to establish a karate promotion association. As Mr. Furukawa told us the necessity of founding a karate promotion association, we think the other people also seem to agree to this plan. So we would like the members to start the preparation for establishing it.

Bushi Matsumura

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BUSHI MATSUMURA SOKON 松村宗棍
by Scot Mertz

Unyu, Bucho, Wu Chengda, Kayo Sokon, Kiyo Sokon, Bu Seitatsu Unyu
1809-1899 (Tomb Dates, confirmed by family Koseki)

Before we start on Matsumura himself, we need to take a look at his family.  According to documentation from the Bureau of Genealogies, Esu Anji Soso was the founder of the house of Bu (武).  The family name was Kayo (or Kiyo) spelled as 嘉陽, and this was the family name from around 1719 until around 1790, then many of the family members changed the name to Muramatsu (村松) and others changed it to Kiyo (井陽), later in 1861 the majority of the family reverted their name back to Kiyo.  Sokon being of the linear lineage kept the family name throughout.

Family lineage: (Name, Chinese Name, dates)
Ensu Anji Soso - Bu Genmin - 1472
Soju - Bu Sei'an - 1519
Zayasu Okite Pechin So'ei - Bu Sho'an - 1468-1560
Kobashikawa Okite Pechin Somo - Bu Eiso - 1519-1585
Noguni Pechin Sosho - Bu Juntoku - 1567-1648
Noguni Pechin Soho - Bu Kaishun - 1599-unk
Sobi - Bu Tokusei - 1649-1718
Sosa - Bu Eiho - 1675-1740
Soryu - Bu Chuyu - 1698-unk *exiled to Miyako 1729*
Soju - Bu Shisu - 1708-1752 - Had no legitimate sons
Sosho - Bu Yosho - 1714-1777 - Grandson of Sobi - Continued lineage
Shoshi - Bu Tokuon - 1742-1786
Sofuku - Bu Kosho - 1766-1828
Sokon - Bu Seitatsu - 1809-1899


On May 30, 1809 a young Kiyo Sokon (井陽宗棍) was born in Yamakawa Village to Kiyo Sofuku and Yoshie.  Kiyo Sokon was the 10th generation of the Bu clan (武) and the 7th generation of the Mo (莫) clan.  His father was Chinese (from the 36 families) and his mother was Ryukyuan.  Sokon was a fast study in Chinese and was called Wu Chengda by his Chinese friends (Bu Seitatsu in Japanese) and later in life when he traveled to China he used the name again.  The Bu and Mo families were always associated with great martial artists, and because of his ability to learn quickly and natural talent he also became a great martial artist.


Sokon trained with his father from 1821 to 1825 and learned Kake, Kumite, Shima, and bojutsu.  It was during this time that Sokon learned the value of Bun Bu Ryo Do (文武両道), which is the ability to balance physical training with mental training.


In 1826 Sokon entered into the service of the Ryukyu King Sho Ko.  At this point Sokon’s surname of Kiyo (井陽) was abandoned, as was the tradition for Royal guards.  When his name was changed to Matsumura (松村), Sokon was given the title of Chikudan Pechin.


Shortly after entering service Matsumura began training with the man who he was replacing.  This man was named Pechin Kojo Chinpe (also known as Umare Bushi of Kume, Nmari Bushi, Higa Kanematsu, Higa Machu, and Matsu Higa).


(**family legend**)  In 1828 King Sho Ko was conducting a plot to overthrow the Satsuma samurai that were on Okinawa.  Sho Ko sent Kojo and Matsumura to China as part of an envoy to try local training and possibly garner support for a military coup on Okinawa to oust the Satsuma.  This trip lasted for around 4 years.  Later in 1828 Sho Ko abdicated.


During his time in China Matsumura studied martial arts under several different instructors.  Some of them were also military attachés such as Iwa (Yáo Wéi Bó/瑶違伯) and Ason (Liú Lóng Gōng/劉龍公).  However he also looked at traditional martial arts and spent a lot of time at the Shaolin Temple (南少林) in Fujian province.  It was likely through this experience in China that Matsumura was first introduced to the idea of “kata”.


Matsumura returned to Okinawa in 1832.  He had just returned home when the new king, Sho Iku, told Matsumura that he needed a swordsman as a bodyguard.   In 1832 Matsumura traveled to Kagoshima, to train in Jigen Ryu from the legendary Ijuin Yashichiro.  Matsumura spent a total of 5 years learning Jigen Ryu.


Matsumura returned to Okinawa in 1837.  In 1838 he married a young woman named Yonamine Tsuru (與那嶺鶴).  At this time Matsumura was 30 years old, and his wife, Tsuru, was around 16.  Tsuru-sama was a bit of a tomboy growing up, and a lot of the locals in her village of Yonahara (area around Shuri Castle) use to call her "Yonamine no Bushi Tsuru".  Her family owned a business called the Yonahara Yonamine, they would sell items for the local farmers.  It was kind of like a farmer’s market.


Between 1838 and 1860 Matsumura Sokon became a highly trusted advisor of King Sho Iku, and the personal tutor of the young King Sho Tai.   He continued to train with local masters, such as Lord Yabiku, Lord Motobu, and various other famous karateka of the day.  Also during this time Matsumura produced quite a few writings and poetry, for his artist works he would sign his name as Unyu.


In 1860, Matsumura made a second trip to China as part of the Royal Emissary.  While there he made arrangements with the Ryukyukan in Fuzhou and ultimately came back from China in 1865 with Kojo Tatei, Kojo Isei, and Iwa (Yáo Wéi Bó/瑶違伯).


On March 11, 1879 King Sho Tai gave power of the Ryukyu Kingdom to Japan as part of the Haihan-Chiken (廃藩置県).  Chinese Viceroy Li Hongzhang (李鴻章) protested the annexation, and tried to enter discussions with former US President Ulysses S. Grant and other foreign dignitaries with no avail.


It should be noted that the Kiyo family name changed shortly after 1879.  There was an issue with families who had Chinese kanji in their names.  井陽 was considered too Chinese; the first character was changed back to 嘉陽 and pronounced as Kayo or Kaiyo.  This did not affect Matsumura himself, but all of his family had to adhere to the change.  To this day the family uses 嘉陽.


By the end of 1879 Matsumura became the guard at the Royal Gardens (御番, Uban), and was teaching karate to locals who were interested in the old ways of combat.  During this time there were several letters penned by Matsumura, most of them were signed as "Bucho".


Matsumura Sokon passed away on August 8, 1899.  Some of his students included Pechin Sakihara, Pechin Sakuma, Pechin Kiyuna, Ishimine Bishi, Kyan Chotoku, Motobu Choyu, Yabu Kentsu, Kuwaye Ryosei, Hanashiro Chomo, Chinen Sanda, Chikudun Pechin Tawada Shinboku, Itarashiki Chochu, Asato Anko, and Chibana Chosho.

Researchers Scot Mertz and Andy Sloane at the tomb of Bushi Matsumura in 2015

--- This research was compiled from various sources, the bulk of which was from interviews with family members of the Kayo family and direct descendants of Matsumura.  Family documentation was referenced for many of the dates.  Additionally the Bu Clan (house of Kayo) Genealogies from Shuri was referenced as was documentation from the Kojo (Koshiro) family for supporting references.  Some of this was also validated against research by Andreas Quast and his book Karate 1.0 and other conversations. ---

Effort and Opportunity

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Had a very unusual exchange a few nights ago with a parent of one of my students.  In so many words, I was conducting testing, but her child was not involved due to lack of time in grade.  Didn’t think anything of it, so the junior kids usually watch the tests so they can get familiar with how the testing is done and what is expected of them.  This particular testing was for junior kids age 5-8 and it was from white (9th kyu) to orange (8th kyu).
 
After the testing was completed and the remainder of class was done the mother came up to me and said that she felt that I was not giving her child an equal opportunity to test as the other children did and that it would only be fair if I awarded her child with an orange belt too, as her child participated by being present and watching the others.
 
Kind of bewildered by this, I explained that her child was not ready to test and that there was time in grade requirements.  All of my students receive books that cover the curriculum that they are required to know, and there are signature pages where everything is checked multiple times before the individual is allowed to test.  Her child did not have the book filled out, didn’t have the time in grade requirement, and didn’t know the material.  So she persisted that I should still give her child something anyway because of their participation.  So what I did next was probably not the right thing, but I called her child over and asked “can you perform Gekisai Dai ichi?”, the child responded “I don’t know that kata yet”, so I thanked the child and sent him on his merry way.  Looked at the mother and said “your kid doesn’t know the material; I can’t test him yet”.  With this she threw a bit of a hissy fit and took her child and left.
 
So what I would like to really cover is equal opportunity doesn’t mean equal outcome.  It seems like a lot of these younger parents (age 24 and younger) seem to not really understand that just because you are presented the opportunity to do something doesn’t mean that you are guaranteed the same outcome.  Meaning the real root of equal opportunity is being able to take a class, the outcome however is the result of how much time and work you put into it.  If taking a test for example and one person gets an “A” and another person gets a “F”, this doesn’t mean that it’s violating equal opportunity for the person who received the “F”, they were still granted the opportunity to take the test.  The outcome being the grade should not be altered because they participated in the test, but it is a result of the effort that went into it on that person’s part.  If the person comes back saying they felt that it was not fair that someone received an “A” and they received an “F” and they deserve an “A” because they took the same test and participated in class, this still goes back to outcome verses opportunity.  Equal opportunity is not equal outcome.  There are no participation trophies in life, and there shouldn’t be in karate either.  Effort = outcome.
 
Gambatte Kudasai,
Scot